Abaasy or Abaahy (Yakuts) One
eyed, one armed, one legged evil spirits which come from the lower
level of the universe (reffered to as the underworld or the kingdom of
darkness). They which ride on two headed, two legged, two tailed
dragons. The Abaahy are at times the dead of the long time deceased who
dwelled near graves and deserted places. They would travel around
causing destruction. They served Arson Doulai the ruler of the dead who
would swall peoples souls and gives the living diseases. They could be
appeased by blood sacrifices.
Agnuuriin ongon (Mongolia) An Ongon which helps with hunting. (See Ongon)
Ai Toyon (Yakut) The god of light which is usually depicted as an eagle perched atop the world tree.
Ajarai Buhe (Mongolia) The spirit of the Lena River. Shamans and people would make offerings to her and envoke her for blessings and protection.
Ak D'aiyk (Altaian) A
shamans rotective spirit refered to as my golden edged, was a celestial
goddess sent to earth to by ul'gen to protect mankind. (See Altaian
Albys (Tuvan) Spirits
which fly with a rustling sound. They go forth and act as spies for the
shamans in the other worlds. In this way they are often used to find
out which spirits have caused a person to become sick.
Altai Aab (Mongolia) A
powerful Gazrinn Ezen of a mountain in the Altai region. Shamans always
pay their respects to him first when they travel to this region.
Al Lukh Mas (Yakut) Are
the spirits of large trees. Such spirits of the forests were very
important and were given coins, scarves and ribbons in order to bring
luck and avoid their wrath.
Altain Protector Spirits (Altain) A
spirit which the shaman called on for help and which would give the
shaman information on what was happening, such as why someone was sick.
They would also give the shaman advice advice on how to deal with
another spirit. Further they would protect the shaman from danger and
when the shaman sent his soul traveling to give the sacrifice to Erlik
the shamans spirit was helped by his helper spirits as well as his
Altain tutelary spirit (Altaian) Each
family had a spirit which helped to protect them and before beginning a
ritual to cure a persons illness the shaman would ask ths spirit for
help. To do this wine would be sprinkled on the image of the spirit and
Anda Bars (Buryat) The tiger whose spirit is prayed to for good hunting.
Arinkolduk (Even) Evil spirit of the lower world which cuases illness and misfortune such as an unsuccessful hunt
Arsan Duolai (Yakut) God of the underworld, his servents are tasked with the collection of cattle and horses for sacrifices
Arzhaan (Tuvan) The
spirit of water which gets angry if it is defiled. Arzhaan are also
used to purify things, and aid in the banishment of evil spirits.
Ayysyt (Yakut) Goddess
of fertility who provides each new born child with a soul. She was
believed to live on a mountain top in a house with seven stories from
which she controlled the fate of the world.
Aza (Thvinian) A
spirit with a forked tongue who is quick witted. Shamans would ask them
to not disturbe sleeping children or frighten livestock.
Bai baiania (Yukat) God of the forest and happiness.
Bai Karshyt (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as Three stepped. He was the son of th Ul'gen. (See Altaian Protector Spirits)
Barisaa (Mongolia) A
powerful prayer tree brings peace and reduces violence by calming
people and giving them peaceful thoughts. The Barisaa could also give
people insperation. Barisaa come into being when shamans perform the
ariulga, a ritual to cleans the tree and people of evil spirits.
Bayan Ahaa or Bayan Hangai (Mongolia) A
spirit who rules over the forest, and so is the one hunters often pray
to for success. Their figures are often carved into the sides of trees,
snowmen are build or from a stick with a human face carved onto it.
People are careful not to throw things into the woods as this might
insult the Bayan Ahaa and cause him to curse the person.
Bayanai (Yakut) Lord of the forest who has to be appeased in order to hunt.
Bear, Bull and Fish Spirits (Yakut) When
the shaman's figures of sprinkled with reindeer blood these spirits
would become animated and transform into the shaman's helper spirits.
These would than go into the underworld at the command of the shaman.
They would than help him catch the evil spirit responsible for a
Bokhsuruiuu (Yakut) Evil
illness causing spirits with slender waist and jagged fangs. They made
people ill in order to eat, believing that it was their right to make
humans sick as they were descended from the child of a noble being.
They were often females daughters of Ilbis. But the shaman could
negotiate with them and convince them to leave if an offering was made
(often the offering had to be provided at sunset and could
include a sacrifice. Such negotiation was actually an negotiation with
each side barginning what the prices should be). At times the shaman
would get the Bokhsuruiuu to return a persons soul through trickery.
Buk (Tuvan) Evil
spirits which cause people to grow ill. Shamans and their helper
spirits would have to chase from those whom they made ill. But buk
could be stubern and it might be difficult to ge thtem to stay away.
Bura Khan (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as 'Cloudy eyed.' (See Altain Protective Spirits)
Burhan (Buryat) A female spirit of a lake to whom people make offerings in return for protection against dangers while fishing.
Burkhan (Mongolia) A
powerufl spirit which most shamans can't control but they can be
negotiated with in order to leave people alone when they cause illness.
Chavag Bazhy (Thvinian) The
name of one of the shaman's helper spirits. Shamans helpers were the
'grim owners of the forest' they were protectors of the shaman when he
battled evil spirits.
Chotgor (Mongolia) Spirits which cause illness, some of them are the spirits of the dead who could not find their way into the underworld.
Chuiuk (Altaian) Appearing
a similar to a falcan or a gray eagle. He was the protector of a
particular shaman as the head of the shamans ancestors.
Diaiuch (Altaian) Owner
spirit of a shamans drum which aids him when he send his spirit to the
underworld to convince Erlik to stop making a person sick, or in other
Eeren (Tuvan) Helper
spirits who were summoned in sťance which was usually held at the
beginning of night and before daybreak. They were sent out to search
for the causes of illness, and were used to aid the shaman in fighting
Eeren Badger (Tuvan) Reffered to as 'the bald' One of the helper spirits used by the shaman to search for the causes of illness
Eeren Bear (Tuvan) Refered to as 'the hornless. One of the helper spirits used by the shaman to search for the causes of illness.
Eeren Moosa (Tuvan) A shamans helper spirit which in one case at least takes the form of a wolf
Eeren Moth (Tuvan) One
of the helper spirits used by the shaman to search for the causes of
illness. In one of the recorded seances the moth was sent to the place
the soul was to help the shaman negotiat with the evil spirits for the
return of the soul.
Eeren Raven (Tuvan) The
first spirit consultated by a shaman whose ritual was recorded. Ravens
were a death portent, it's cry near a sick person meant the person
would die soon. This was because the Raven was so well intune with the
spirit world. Shamans would often ask ravens for help, to protect
themselves and others from death. In one case the shaman speaks of his
raven eeren as flying swiftly, with inscriptions and oraments on their
wings and tails. They help search for causes of illness and trouble for
Endur (Mongolia) Spirits of the sky. These are the strongest of all the spirits.
Erlik (Altaian) The
ruler of the evil spirits to whom the people would make an offering
when there was sickness in hopes that he would have his spirits lift
the illness. To appease him they would sacrifice an animal, often a
horse. The Shaman's soul would than travel into the underworld with the
help of his Spirit Protectors to give the gift to Erlik.
Eternal Snows (Thvinian) During the ritual to cure illness the shaman would greet major spirits and ask them for aid. This is one of those spirits.
Evil spirits (Kumandin) Were
appeased through animal sacrifice and sprinkling with a form of beer in
order to get the iurgen-chula (soul) of a person back. They would offer
seven or nine cups of beer to Erlik in order to get a soul back.
Evil Spirits (Yakuts) Dangerous
spirits of illness might hide in the dirt so yurts are swept clean
before such spirits are cast out of a sick person. They were addressed
as the eight legged tribe of evil spirits. When casting them out of a
person the shaman would warn them what was happeing and ask them not to
be angry about it.
Fire (Tuvan) A
highly venerated spirit which could bring fortune and luck to a family,
he brought happiness and saftey to children, and kept live stock
growing. Each hearth had a different animal devoted to it, and spirit
of the fire of that hearth was often described in that way. Though they
were normally helpful fire spirits could also make people ill if they
Fire (Khakass) The
shaman started his ritual by making an offering of araka to the fire
which would bring this offering to the spirit of the sky.
Gants Mod (Mongolia) A powerful tree which stands alone.
Gazriin Ezen (Mongolia) Spirits
of a place including mountains, water, rocks, villages, buildings,
nations, trees, etc. Many of them were once the souls of humans who
went to reside in nature on the persons death. For many of these it has
been so long since they were human they don't remmember having ever
been so. Piles of rocks and sticks called oboo or ovoo are set
up, those travleing through the Gazriin Ezen's territory would pay
their respects by adding another rock to this pile. At times they would
even make an offering of milk products, alchohal, or other items.
Gazriin Ezen Mountain (Mongolia) Powerful
spirits to whom special ceremonies are often held. The mountain spirit
may send wolves to get horses or other herd animals or may take the
form of wolves as people say that the mountain spirit has taken an
animal when a wolf gets it.
Genghis Khan (Mongolia) An ancestral spirit for Mongolia who protects the nation and marriage.
Golomt Eej (Mongolia) The spirit of the fire who was believed to be the daughter of the Father of Heaven.
High Mountain (Tuvan) Source of water asked to help heal people, protect villages, and more.
Horse - Sacred (Tuvan) The
spirit of a horse which could make people ill. In order to pacify it
the shaman would decorate a horse in red ribbons, burn juniper incense,
and wash it with arzhaan (holy water) They would ask the horse to no
longer be angery with his master and to guard the family. Horses are
powerful spirits which cancause cause their owner to grow ill by biting
their bridle. Still
despite their ability to cause illness horse spirits are typically
good, their spirits transport shamans through the various spirit
worlds, allowing them to cure the sick.
Ibd irailduk (Even) Evil spirit of the lower world which causes illness and misfortune such as an unsuccessful hunt To
defeat spirits of illness the shaman would often split them into two
parts and place them inside carvings of birds which would fly them up
to heaven so they couldn't return.
Ichchi (Yakut) The spirit of living beings including rivers, rocks, lakes, trees, natural forces, and even objects created by humans.
Inken (Even) The spirit of thunder and lightning which was asked by the shaman to take argi from a person (Argi are disease causing spirits).
Iuer (Yakut) Spirits of a location
Kadyr Os (Thvinian) A
spirit refered to as 'at the mouth of.' Shamans helpers were the 'grim
owners of the forest' they were protectors of the shaman when he
battled evil spirits
Kara Kara (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as three horned was the owner of the territory of the clan ochy.
Kas (Altaian) Geese belonging to Utkuchi on which the shamans spirit returns to earth when he sends his spirit into the heavens.
Keeleeni (Yakut) A
spirit which renders assistance to the shaman and might posses him in
order to ask questions of the shamans audience. Usually summoned after
the ritual of purification. They had a tail and would catch bad spirits
and escort them away from the ritual place.
Ker Buura (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as being 'of the milky lake.'
Khan Deer (Tuvan) A
mountain range to which the shaman would appeal to for success in a
hunt by sprinkling holy water and offering blue ribbon. They would also
ask that those who did not appeal to the mountain range not be able to
steal from it. In legend hunters killed so many animals in this
mountain range that their blood became a river.
Khoor Albys (Thvinian) Spirit
of the Taiga covered mountans which were invoked during shaman rituals.
They would be summuned to come and play on on the shaman. They would be
asked to blow in from everywhere and soar with the whirlwind.
Kidaii Masquin (Yakut) A
fire spirit who was the first blacksmith and the inventor of iron. He
lives in an iron house surrounded by flames. He is also a healer spirit
which cures broken bones and tempers the souls of shamans.
Kud'ai deer (Even) Protective
spirits of reindeer with divine marks such as those who were white or
piebald and only those with a ball of hair on their necks. This ball
could bring luck to those who cut it off and formed it into a small
rope. If someone is sick or hurt the shaman brings the Kud'ai to help
heal the person. Should a kud'ai die people wouldn't touch it. Shamans might also transfer illness to the kudai. Reindeer were a gift from the Hovki, the god of the sun and so are animals fo the heavens.
Kut (Yukat) The
soul of a person which might be taken by an evil spirit making the
person ill. The kut was often imagined to be a bird and was asked to
flutter and fly back to the person who was sick.
Kuzungu (Tuvan) One shaman's main helper spirit which dwells within a copper mirror.
Loon (Mongolia) A
spirit of water and sky, they are believed to be a mediator between
worlds (the spirits of the water and heavens). For this reason shamans
will often immitate the sounds of the loon during a sťance.
Ongon (Mongolia) A
Shamans helper spirits. In some cases they were believed to be the
spirit of shamans who have died, they can be consecrated in idols
within three years of the shamans death and placed in the home or in
the wilderness. They are oten placed at the borders between taiga and
steppe, the mouths of rivers or other important places. Suld ancestral
spirits which remain on earth
Ongon Mod or Ezetei (Mongolia) Trees which stand in special places such as mountain passes, near springs, and so forth.
Otsoor (Mongolia) Suld spirits which remain on earth
Sharash Taiga (Thvinian) A
protective spirit which is reffered to as 'twin headed with many snow
covered caps.' Shamans helpers were the 'grim owners of the forest'
they were protectors of the shaman when he battled evil spirits
Shulmusy (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as 'My moon and sun.'
Small Pox (Even) Beautiful
woman with red hair who would sneak onto peoples sledges and travel
with their caravan. Most people could not see her outside of the
shamans. When the shaman would try to fight her she would take the form
of a giant red bull. If small pox defeated the shaman they would infect
and kill the shaman's people. Because the causer of small pox was
such a powerful spirit shamans often ganged up on them when they could.
Spirit of the Yurt (Khakass) The
second offering in a ritual would be made to the spirit owner of the
yurt ]. During rituals these spirits are put up in a high table which
is placed in the front corner of a yurt. Mutton and curds and bottles
of liquide are placed on the table so that their scent can rise up as
an offering for the spirit. In addition nine pieces of clothing were
offered on a rope. Further a decorated horse was given to it as a
living offering. They would protect the village, help to cure illness
Suld or Usen Fayenga (Mongolia) An
Ancestral spirit which remains on earth forever. This spirit may
protect their descendants or contact them to give them advice. Such
spirits live within natural places such as trees, springs, rocks, etc.
Tai Burra (Altaian) Protective spirit refered to as cloudy eyes. (See Altaian Protective Spirits)
Taiga (Tuvan) The northern forest which the shaman would ask to help heal someone.
Taimens (Thvinian) A
shaman helper spirit refered to as 'Wide mouthed Taimens.' Shamans
helpers were the 'grim owners of the forest' they were protectors of
the shaman when he battled evil spirits
Tengeriin us (Mongolia) Things
which have been struck by lightning or meteorites which are believed to
carry the power of the sky. In many ways one could immagine these as
being like shamans of the natureal world.
Testar (Khakass) Shaman's spirit helpers who aided him in his spirit journy.
Tongazy Testimonies (Kyzyl) Disease causing spirits which the shamans had to deal with.
Ukulan Tojon (Yakut) The chief water spirit.
tutelary spirits which would help with the harvest, protect peoples
health, increase livestock, and aid in hhunting. People would sacrifice
light colored horses to the Ul'gen. This horse could not be used for
any kind of work, nor ever touched by a woman.
Usan Khan or Uha Loson (Mongolia) This spirit is the lord of the water.
Uspa (Tuvan) Master
of the lake who might curse those who defile water and is so powerful
they are able to block the shamans eeren (helper spritis) from
preventing his will. Thus to cure those he had made ill by Uspa
offerings had to be made.
Utha (Mongolia) A shaman's ancestor spirit which becomes an extra soul when they become a shaman.
Utkuchi (Altaian) A
messanger for Ul'gen who meets the shaman at the golden stake which
blocks the shamans path to the highest levels of the upper world.
Uzut (Tuleut) beings which hurt people, causing them to become ill. They might also possess objects such as kettles.
White Lakes (Thvinian) (Greetings) Shamans helpers were the 'grim owners of the forest' they were protectors of the shaman when he battled evil spirits
Xaya Iccita (Yakut) Spirit god of the mountains
Yekyua (Yakut) Each
yekyua is associated with a particular animal with the type of animal
determining the strength of the yekyua. The Yekyua would act as
familiar spsirts to protect the yakut shaman. Among the Yekyua dogs had
very little power while elk are very powerful. Further some yekyua come
with greater costs, such that the dog yekyua will gnaw away at the
shaman and destroy his body, causing him to become ill. Most yekyua
protect the shaman, however. Only shamans can see the yekyua. At times
the shaman will put their own soul into their yekyua, which makes the
shaman vulnerable as they will die if the yekyua dies. This allows the
shaman to travel through the other worlds more easily, however. Each spring the yekyua emerge as the snow melsts and begin to fight which in turn causes the shaman to feel ill.
Yina'mna'ut (Yakut) Female spirits of the fog and mist.
Ynia'mtilan (Yakut) Male spirits of the fog and mist.
Yot Ichchite (Yakut) Spirit
of the hearth fire which were fed morsals of food. The bride would
offer the Yot Ichchite of her grooms family some food in order to