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Fairy List Encyclopedia|
A List of fairies and creatures of the fairy type for writers, artists and those intersted in folk religions. Learn More
Ugric Fairy List
Female spirit of the forest which can appear as a dragon or a giant snake. She is the mother of disease and serpents whom she suckles and any looking upon her becoming ill.
Aj Kaltas (Khanty)
A spirit which protects pregnant woman.
A female spirit often mentioned in song prayers in peoples request for help. Among other things she helps women to successfully carry their child and give birth.
Spirit deity of various plants such as turnips, cabbage, flax and peas.
Forest Kings Daughter - Mentioned in songs as "the Gift Giver" in reference to her giving up of animals for hunters and wild plants for harvesters.
As Iki (Khanty)
A spirit which appears to be a bit like an old man, except that he has transparent eyes. He lives in a transparent house under the water a tthe mouth of the Ob River. Here he directs the affairs of the river, and should people offer him sacrifices he will send lots of fish up the river.
Ba ösh (Komi)
A strange creature which has four legs and the torso of a naked human. They live in the wate, coming out to walk on the beach. Sometimes they take the form of a small object such as a seed in order to be sollowed by a swimmer so that he can begin to grow as a fetus inside the person. Occasionally they may rise up to the persons throat and begin to choke them.
The bopca could appear as a giant (often nude) with shaggy ears though he could also appear as a whirlwind, however, he was a shapeshifter and would often take the form of a cat or other small animals.
They would often steal the catch from unters or attack them, unless the hunter made offerings to him (such as tobacco), in return for which the bopca might even tell the hunter where to find game. Thus it was sometimes thought that the Bopca as a lord of the forest was merely attacking hunters who did not pay it it's due.
He could lure people into the woods, and cause them to get lost. Sometimes he would give people riddles which they had to solve to be able to return home. Other times he simply kidnapped them, often taking children. Those taken by him aged rapidly, thus a child taken might return a few years later as an old man. Other times they would kidnap women to make them his wife.
The Bopca were also in constant war with the vakula water spirits, thus it was dangerous for people to come out at noon when these two powerful forces would fight each other.
If the dzodzuv touched any part of the human body that part woudl become sick or start to rot. If it fell into a house someone in that hosue would die an early death.
The spirit of the builder of a house who remains to guard the home he built. They could however be transferred from one home to a new one through the fire. The Haltia oversaw peoples activities in the building, making certain they remained moral – punishing over drinking, etc.
They can also be the spirits of mountains and other places as attested to by the treasure hunters song in which states “a treasure-seeker exclaims: 'Kinsmen of Hiisi, now arise! awake, thou mountain haltia!” or that of an individual person “A hunter sadly complains that with other men luck does the work, their haltia fetches them coin, but his luck, his haltia, lies confused under a stone with gloves on his hands,”
Every lake and stream, forest and swamp, even the flowers and trees are living beings with intelligent souls or so went the philosophy of the ancient Finns. These spirits often known as haltia (a term meaning governor or steward) acts rules over some aspect of nature such as the back woods, or the mountains. Prayers to the haltia were extreamly common as people saught their help in protecting the cattle, finding the treasures which were buried underground, successfully hunting for game and more.
In addition to being the spirit of the forest every persona has their own haltia
“a wizard in working himself into an ecstasy invokes his haltia to rise from its hole, from under a fallen tree, or stone, or moss, or wherever it may be, and mentions its brilliant eyes and spotted cheek, as if he had a snake in his mind's eye. The technical term for being in an ecstasy (olla haltiossansa l. haltioisansa) means literally 'to be in one's haltia or among one's haltia,' in other words, 'to be in the spirit or among the spirits.' From the above examples we see that the heavens, the earth, the forest, the mountain, and individual men, have each their spirit, ruler, or guardian. Such an idea goes back to the earliest times.”
Meaning something similar to hill and or mountain which is similar in many ways to a holy place. The hiisi are the Tutelary spirits are the spirits of awe inspiring natural features which most often involve rough terrain such as hills, giant boulders, deep crevasses, etc. As with many forest divinities the hissi is asked to chae animals to the hunters.
The hiisi’s horse was said to be the sound that the trees of the forest made as the wind rushed through them.
Christianity reduced Hissi to being much like small ugly twisted trolls which traveled in noisy processions, stole from humans, caused illness and did all the other bad things which happened which required an opposing dualistic force. Of course this is not to say the Hiisi didn’t do some these things originally,, its hard to say how dualistic he was as many creatures in Uralic mythology seem to be both creative and distructive.
In one song to the Hiisi at least they are invoked to keep away evil. “O Hiisi, come from Hiitola, thou humpback! from the home of gods to cast out that which needs must be cast out and cause the monster's death.”
Huijuta and Siilikki (name means hedgehog)
Two of the forest kings daughter in laws. Matrons of the wasps they are asked in prayers to keep the wasps from stinging.
A tall man who is flat as aboard, with mouth and eyes that are too big for his face. It was believed that he took unattended children.
The name for owl, for it was believed that the purpose of owls was to destroy dangerous spirits that humans could not see. The owls could also come to people as a messanger or change form into that of a human in order to marry one.
Forest spirit who lives in pairs and brings good fortune.
One of the forest kings daughters mentioned as, 'the lovely' when asking her to help herd cattle through the forest in prayers.
A spirit which enjoys scaring children. She often appeared as a tall girl dressed in blue with long braids and blue eyes. She would cook dumplings and evite people to eat with hear. She would also appear in the form of the husband of a woman who's husband had gone missing. Though she was usually found out during meals for she had the teeth of a horse and the feet of a cow.
A spirit which lives in a hut deep in the forest and controls wolves. They were dangerous but would let those go who could guess a riddle. In one story he turned someone he kidnapped into a sheep.
Dangerous spirits which would settle into a house. They would move objects and make noise at night. Sometimes these noises were so loud and troublesome that the Kreacher would drive the people out.
The patroness of foxes who was asked to bring them to the hunters traps.
A spirit which lived underwater except at Christmas when it would come out. It was very dangerous and would drag people into the water with it, so people sayed in to avoid it.
The moon goddess
Female spirits which haunt the mountains often thought to be the ghosts of virgins who died young.
The patroness of foxes who was asked to bring them to the hunters traps.
An old hag which needed a crutch. She would lure children into her forest cabin and then keep them by force.
Evil giant forest spirits ssiad to be as tall as trees which do their best to lead travelers astray appearing as flashing lights much like the will o’ the wisp. He causes illness to befall people, and sicks toothaches on people the way one might a dog. He is said to cause of a lot of ill deeds when a knife slips and cuts someone using it
Daughter of the Forest King - In charge of snow white animals such as ermine
Word for Alder tree which was magical tree with a strong spirit. Weapons made from it could kill sorcerers such that they couldn't come back to life.
Only mentioned once in the songs that I have found
From waters of witches hast thou come, from the lilies on a landlocked lake, from Nixies’ lummekoira haunts, from a water-Hiisi's hole, from the sea's black mud, a thousand fathoms deep,
A malicious spirit which causes whirlpools, blizzrds, and wind which scattered the hay in the fields. Tabacco was believed to drive it away.
A forest fairy which appears as a tiny man. They love to riddle, struggle for dominance, etc.
Goddess of the forest and one of the primary creators of the sacred bears she is at various times the wife or daughter in law of Tapio.
She is asked at various times to help with haunts or to protect cattle grazing in the forest or those who are seeking to gather mushrooms and berries.
She heals animals through healing, or by treating baby chicks which have fallen from their nests and occasionally she’ll train a human in her healing arts.
Mikitar (another word for fox)
One of the forest kings daughter in laws.
Similar to the Nacken of Scandinavia this spirit resides in murky pools of water and rivers, especially in dark places such as under bridges or docks. They pull people into the water to drown.
The Nakki has many appearances in mythology, as an ugly fishermen which can change into a beautiful three brested women. A fish, a horse, or some other animal. Or as a handsome man which is ugly on their back.
Nyypetti (Tapio’s son)
Aids in herding cattle to summer pastures
Nyyrikki (Tapio’s son)
Wears a blue cloak a tall red hat and has a white beard
Protects animals from the hunters, directing game animals away from danger.
A spirit double that appears when a human is first born and accompanies them to their death. They exist outside the body, though the person couldn't see them. Those few who did see them saw them as doing the same thing as their master. They would often appear as a woman in a yellow dress, though they had other human forms.
The orth would try to warn his master of danger, and especially of death. Those who listened to their orth would obtain happiness.
Bears were the powerful kings of the forest in Komi mythology, they had the shamanistic power of transformation and could at times turn into a person. Originally a deity in the sky he came to earth because of his love of earth food, but once he ate here he could not return. It was Osh got the deities to give humans their thumbs, even though it meant that he might be hunted by humans. Further Osh made the swamps, mountains, valleys, and so forth by scratching the flat earth. Though clearly good black bears were also symbols of death.
In addition to food, Osh loved human woman and would sometimes take them to live with him.
Was the spirit of the bear which was considered to be the forest king and was often refered to as being related (brother, uncle, cousin, etc) in order to avoid saying his name directly.
One of the forest kings daughters mentioned as the tinny lass when she is asked to help herd cattle safely through the forest in prayers.
A strong one eyed forest which who lived with a bear. She was a spiritual master of the water and the forest and had power over each element as well as life or death. Allowing her to bring people back fromt he dead.
One of the forest kings daughters, in charge of animals with a white cross on their brest. Often small and furry such as ermine and weasel.
Rooster were believed to have many magical powers within Kimi mythology. They could reach all areas of the universe, much like a shaman did, including the realm under the water, and the celestial world (passing through fire without hurting himself). The rooster was considered to be one of the first birds created in the beginning of the world.
The rooster was also a gaurdian against evil forces, for when they crowed evil lost it's power. Further they would use their powers to warn people of danger.
The Personification of illness, they took the form of animals and objects (beetles, mice, birds, worms, grubs, hair, thread, lizards, a speck of dust, among other things) or of a little man. It did this in order to try to get inside people, often through their food, thus they carefully examined their food before eating it.
Sometimes such beings were made by witches or evil wizards who would put them on food or at cross-roads in order to curse a passing person, where it would follow them to their homes.
A woman who was seen sitting on the banks of her river combing her long black hair. Those who saw her were soon to drown. She would also carry off children who wen to close to the fast moving water.
They were dangerous spirits which would substitute babies for sickly changlings. In order to provent this people would put needles, scissors, bread and salt near the baby. Other times they would appear as dancers, revelers calling to a child, should the child give them their hand the child whill be under the Shuvgeya's power forever. Further the Shuvgeya often existed in spaces which acted as a bridge between the spirit world and the human world. Such spaces included bridges, barns, the forests and the bath house. It was dangerous for a child to enter any of these alone or they might be taken.
They would also carry away adults in the form of a whirlwind. They would also cause epilepsy, especially in those who disrespected their holidays. In addition to taking people they often saught to mate wiht them, taking on the form of a recently deceased loved one, or as a beautiful woman in order to lure people further into the woods.
In order to protect oneself from a Shuvgey a person would wear a silk thread tied around the waste, and certain crystals which could be worn in a bag on the chest.
Tapio was called the golden king of the forest, he had a mossy beard and a feathered hat of twigs from the fir trees. The wild animals were said to all belong to him as his flocks. Tapio was increadably important to people not just because they needed his aid an approval when they went hunting in the woods but because they needed to pasture their cattle and sheep in the forests and so their livelihoods depended on Tapio and the other forest spirits graces.
Tapio was often very helpful, however offerings of salt were often necessary to get him to give up his animals to trapps.
He and his family were said to live in secret forts made of wood and bone in the forests.
Tapio’s had an obvious dualism even having different names for her differing personalities. As a kind matran of hunters she was Mielikki, but when she didn’t care she was known as Kuurikki (the deaf), and was terrble in apperence wearing rags as she romed through the forest.
She is also known as Hongas or Hongatar 'Fir's daughter' and in this roll she has a hollow back (much like the forest spirits of Scandinvan mythology). She was known as Nyrkitar when she directed the forest cattle or the ermine, stoats and other furry creatures people might hunt.
When out of spirits and dejected she may have acquired the name of Nyrkitär. As directress of the droves (juoni) of forest cattle, the mistress of the forest receives the appellation of Juonetar. As ermines, stoats, and other furry animals
One of the Forest Kings daughters - Wears a gold and silver dress
One of the Forest Kings daughters. Mentioned as "the short" when asking her to help people herd their cattle through the forests.
The personification of winter.
The vakula appears as a vortex, a girl combing her long green hair, or a pike.
In the komi belief system water was the first element of the universe., it was what penetrated and bound everything else together. The Vakula would protect spawning fish, casting spears back at fishermen who attack them. They also attack and drwon lonely travelers or fishermen. They will drive the fish from the boats of those fishing and attack people at watermills. They were easily offended and would be angered by those throwing stones into a pond, woman rinsing clothing, or shouting and loud noises near their pond. Those who did these things might suffer from a headache. Thus those who suffered headaches would go wash in the water and ask for forgiveness.
The Valkula rarely left the water but at times they would come up to feed their cattle on the sides of the lakes.
At times the Vakula could be very helpful. In one tale a vakula brought a fisherman to her underwater house and gave him a lot of money.
A water spirit which could take on many forms, including a tall man dressed in green with green hair, or a powerful old gray beareded man. Sometimes he would come up onto the shore and than when he threw himself back into the water it woudl cause a storm and huge waves. Normally, however, he lived underwater in a world much like the human world, with rivers, lakes, cows, huts, forests and the like.
He might also appear as a giant pike, and in this form he would attack fishermen causing their own spears to turn back on them. They might also snag children or even adults in this form. The Vasa believed strongly in politness, they would punish fishermen who swore by tearing up their nets. They would also punish those who threw trash into the water, or those who quarreled nearl their lakes or rivers.
In order to curry favor with the Vasa people would make him offerings of bread and butter every time they came to a lake or river to fish. They would also offer eggs, pancakes, and money to him. Those building watermills in his rivers would sacrifice a cat or a dog to him. They would also offer wine and other food as well to keep the mill safe.Those who did not do this would be drowned.
In one story the a woman who earned her livelihood through fishing. And in return for offerings the Vasa helped drive the fish too her. Eventually he came onto land and she had two sons with him.
Vavutar (twigs daughter)
One of the forest kings daughter in laws, she is asked by the hunters to climb into trees and listen to the songs to see if they are sutable.
Vazh yöz (Komi)
The spirits of ancestors. Such spirits take a direct interest in the affairs of humans and can their presence can be detected in the gentle breeze, the opening and closing of doors and widows, etc. Often such events are believed to be warnings from the vazh that something bad is going to happen.
At times they may appear in animal form or in dreams in order to manipulate the world or speak with a person directly. Such spirits were prayed to at every meal, and for other events such as a harvest, a hunt, etc.
Drives game from her fathers (the Forest King) hills and is somewhat comparable to the wind.
The embodiment of the spirit of the forest. They were in essence the lords of the forest, often appearing as a bear, his voice could be heard in the owls cry. He could also take the form of a bird and so would often fly away from people with a great woosh. As with most such spirits it was also possible for him to take the form of a whirlwind. Though they also commonly appeard as a tall man in a black wolen coat. They lived in houses deep in the woods, and were typically accompanied by their dog.
They were the owners of the animals of the forest and so when they traveled somewhere for a time many of the animals would travel with them. He would punish those hunters who boasted about their skill and their number of kills. At the same time he would punish those who cursed their ill luck as well.
In order to be successful at hunting one was supposed to bring him gifts, leaving food on a tree stum p, often in the form of tobacco. Other times they would offer him fish cakes, eggs from a black hin, or even a dog which they would kill as a sacrifice.
Beyond this, however, he was a trickster figure, who loved to pull pranks on people. He would get people lost in the forests, and laugh at their misfortune. Other times who would kidnap people, keeping them in his house for a time before letting them go again (most of the time).
An evil spirit which would attack people at midnight.
The spirit of the field to who bread is left in order to gain a good harvest. In order to keep this spirit in the field the last sheaf of rye was left unthreshed, instead it was brought to the barn where the Vundöm would remain until spring, when they would be released back into the field.
A duelistic forest witch which is sort of a cross between Baba Yaga and Holda.
Zolotaya Baba (Kami)
Was an idol in the form of a statue of an old woman with a baby, or a number of children. Or at times a younger woman was depicted.
Understanding the nature of the Mari fairy tales and religion requires and understanding of the kerement as the keremet influances the lives of the Mari to a far greater extent then the gods do and is held with such awe that they rarely speak of it to strangers. Yes the Mari have a head dity (Kugu-Jumo) but he is unclear and not well attested to. As with many traditional peoples they had more concern with the immediate world, the hidden world of beings which could affect them directly aka, the fairies realm of which the keremet was the most important part.
An evil spirit which appears as a fire or shooting star like object flying through the air. They can also take human or bird form with long hair as a women or a long beard as a man or a long beak to peak at and dry up trees as a bird. The human corpes which the burber comes from is red faced and does not decay. To kill it people beat the burber with sticks from an ash tree and then burn it while putting the stone from the craw of a hen it the burbers mouth so that its soul cannot escape in the form of a butterfly to cause further evil.
Horseshoes at the threshold protect agains the burber.
As with many folkloric creatures of the countryside it asucks the milk from cattle and the mill of a cow which has been visited by a burber contains blood, grin, or some other impurity.
To suck the blood of a human they kiss them and then suck the blood out of their victems mouths. They also become the lovers of humans and then cause them so much heartace that they cause the humans to die. In addition to emotional attacks and blood they also eat eyes and will attack people from within, entering peoples stomach or the wombs of pregnant women and animals in order to kill the featis.
The burber will possess humans to get them to do evil, and the human thinks that they are having a series of nightmares.
When someone dies in the forest they can only go free when they kill another so they haunt the forest hoping to do this. They have cloaks which make them invisible and cause humans to get lost so that they may murder them.
Nemdə kurək kuga jen
A kermet who was once a great leader of humans but buried himself instructing people to only awaken him in case of a war. He has an invisible army which he is constantly drilling in the mountains so people can occasionally hear their shooting of guns. When cattle die in an epidemic it is thought to be his soldiers taking the food they need from the land.
He is worshiped during times of wa.
Evil forest spirit which leads people astray at night with the help of illusions which make the world seem different from the way it really is. They can also change shapand in one story it came to a man who was in the bath hose as a wife and lead him outside making him think that the ground was covered in snow and the path was in a different location then it was so the man wandered far off into the forest before relalizing what had happened.
(old man or old women of the lake)
The spirit of the lake which can be offended by making the lake impure (throwing dead animals in it, putting feces in it, etc). If offended the lake can cause illness or even take the entire lake somewhere else.
Beats on trees and the walls of houses to keep people awake as he calls for children to come put to play. It freezes people to death, pinces their feaet and noses, hits people over the head with a wooden mallet. Hates the singing of drunk people and attacks them.
They sow up the door on cold nights.
A keremet which was a hero who fought aganst the Taatars. The Mari at his home town sacrifice a horse in his grove in case of sickness.
A form of field spirit or blessing which cause the gropes to grow well. The pasu perke can be stolen by another mari who has a poor harvest at which point the person who’s pasu perke has been taken will then seek to take anotherone by putting a little dirt in his shoe and dragging it by the shoelace back to his own field where he prays to the pasu perke asking it to stay.
a spirit of the mountains or unders the stones or mill but it tends to inhabit the homestead and bathhouse and may appear as a handsome man or a pretty blond girl who is about three feet tall.
The suksəndal attacks those who go into the bathhouse alone at night (going into the bathouse alone is dangerous as the hot steam can cause people to pass out and die which is why this may have come about)
It also steals babies left alon in the house, and to prevent this the Mari mothers will often put scissors or some other iron object in the cradle to ward it off.
They make noises at night to cause people have nightmares. And sometimes has sexual intercourse with those who are dreaming.
Their bite causes stomachache.
Tales are told of helpful ones, and the Mari will ask them to protect the home and keep out evil.
A forest spirit which is known as the misleader is believed at times to be the spirit of an animal but more often that of a human who died without a name. It roves the forests, meadows, fields and occasionally enters cities and villages, often in the form of a giant.
It has the ability to change form into an animal or haystack or anything else it might wish.
Its laughs and shrieks frighten livestock.
It attempts to lure people off into unknown parts of the forest by calling out to them.
The Targəldəs tickles its victims to death.
They will put out campers fires, and frighten mushroom gatherers and berry pickers by riding them.
In the forest it has a family and so it will prepare its own wedding feats with its extensive cattle.
When happy the targəldəs may warm itself by the fires of campers without doing them any harm.
But ian udərzə
A waterspirit that appears as a beautiful girl with white, yellor or black hair and is either finally dressed or naked. When a human touches it with iron it cannot escape and can be foresed to marry them. However if the human reveals the identity of his wife she will die.
But Aba (water mother)
When people need rain they gather at the bank of the river and playfully throw water at eachother and animals especially those of black sheep and black hens. Then porridge is either offered to the river and then eaten by all those arround, or in other places a black oxen or sheep is eaten on the river bank with the uneaten parts being sunk in the river after the feast.
Should too much rain fall as a resault of thise thse remains are taken out.
The But aba helps to maintain the quality of the water, if the water becomes muddied or bad tasting people attempt to purify it by offering porridge.
The Mari bride must be introduced to the but aba of her new home, and so must be accompanied by someone whom it already knows, where she will make an offering of a few coins or beads to it in order that it will protect her from any new illnesses from the strange water.
There are two different beleifs about the büt aba with regards to fishing in one the the Mari will pour vodka and porridge into the water so that the büt aba will provide them with an aboundent catch. In the other however are very caful not to make any disturbance while fishing or else the offended büt aba will cause them to drown or curse them with illness.
When swimming children are warned not to go into the deep parts of the water or the but aba may pull them down.
Tul aba (fire mother)
Fire is pure and so it is the messanger which carries mens sacrifices to the gods.People aslo pray to the fire to protect them from evil spirits. Because fire is so pure it doesn’t tolorate any kind of pure so when someone toches it with something dirty, throws wood on it in an an agressive way, or spits at it it grows angry and causes illness.
To pasify and keep the fire happy people offer it black hens, or milk from a black cow.
Fire spirit which like the fire mother carries their offerings and messages to the gods. They also help to exersize evil from a hose through their smoke and a ritual. As with the fire mother the fire spirit cuases deseas in those who offend it and must then be placified.
The spirit of the bathhouse, a shape changer it may appear as a man or as a women or as an animal, yet it travels in the form of a shooting star sending of sparks. They have a strong relation to the forest spirits living in the swamps and ravines and at times are said to be the same beings. They often attempt to have sexual relations with humans and their kiss is the cause of cold sores. Yet at the same time they punish sexual impurity in women and men by killing or sickening them.
Its power is conanted the little finger of its left hand which if broken causes it to loose all its magical power.
But Bodəz (water spirit)
A spirit of rivers and springs which causes a sore on the lips of those who drink directly from it, and a sore on the penis of those who urinate in it. He isalso known to cause ulcers
Kudə bodəz (Also known as little hut spirit)
The family deity which inhabits the holy corner of the hut which is often divided from the rest of the hut and where dried twigs are placed for it and at times little wooden figurines. They appear to family members in dreamsin order to provide them with information and aid.
Sacrifices of cereal and the blood of a black sheep, hen or hare are made to it and are placed on a shelf in the holy corner. Such sacrifices are often made when a person has neglected this spirit causing them to become ill.